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International Society of Arboriculture
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Annapolis Junction, MD 20701
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International Society of Arboriculture
270 Peachtree St NW, Suite 1900
Atlanta, GA 30303
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Order Delays Due to Physical Inventory

Due to ISA's annual physical inventory, orders placed between
2 p.m. EDT, Thursday, 20 June 2019, and 11:59 p.m. EDT, Friday 28 June 2019, will not ship until the week of 1 July 2019

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1 July 2019.

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    Climbers' CornerTree Academy

    Evaluation of Asian and European Ash Biotypes for Preference and Susceptability


    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an Asian species was discovered attacking ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in 2002.  EAB is established throughout much of the Midwestern and eastern United States.  In North America, the emerald ash borer (EAB) attacks only native ash species.  To date, none have been observed to be resistant.


    The objectives of this study were to determine:

    ·         The relative suitability and preference of Asian and European ash (Fraxinus spp.) biotypes for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis


    ·         Which Asian and European ash (Fraxinus spp.) biotpyes are suitable for future ash breeding programs


    Beginning in the 2009 and continuing through the 2013 field season, a series of studies were conducted to evaluate Asian and European ash (Fraxinus spp.) biotypes for preference and suitability for the emerald ash borer (EAB).  Laboratory no-choice adult feeding studies were used to test for feeding preference and suitability.  Adult beetles were reared from infested logs and two to three adult female beetles were placed in clear plastic cylinders with candidate ash foliage and allowed to feed.  Feeding cylinders were held in a rearing cage at approximately 75oF and 60-70 relative humidity, with a 16:8 photoperiod.  The beetles were monitored daily for evidence of feeding and mortality and records kept.


    Results from the no-choice feeding studies on Asian and European ash biotypes indicate that adult EAB beetles lived the longest (mean=14 days) on F. pennslyvanica (preferred host) compared to the Asian and European species tested.  Several beetles lived several months on F. pennsylvanica.  Adult beetles lived the second longest period (mean=8 days) on Fraxinus angustifolia var. australis and consumed approximately 22% of the leaf tissue.  The mean # of fecal pellets (275) was second only to F. pennsylvanica with a mean of 326 fecal pellets.  Beetles feeding on the remaining Asian and European ash biotypes (F. angustifolia var. pannonica, F. excelsior, F. ornus)all removed an average of 3% of the leave tissue, lived less than six days, and had a mean of <100 fecal pellets. 


    Additional Asian no-choice laboratory feeding bioassays have revealed adult beetles feeding on F. chinensis ssp. rhynchophylla, and F. longicuspis var. siebolidiana removed <8% of leaf tissue.  Biotypes with medium susceptibility included F. bungeana, F. chinensis, F. platypoda and F. mandshurica var. japonica with 10-15% of the foliage consumed.  Highly susceptible species (24-32% foliage consumed) included F  apertisquamifera, F. insularis, F. paxiana, F. stylosa and F. pennsylvanica (highly preferred species)


    Mortality rate were higher on less suitable hosts and lower on more suitable hosts.   Biotypes with low susceptibility consisted of  F. angustifolia var. pannonica, F. apertisquamifera, F. chinensis, F. chinensis ssp. rhychophylla, F. mandshurica, F. mandshurica var. japonica and F. syriaca.  Highly susceptible biotypes included  F. angustifolia var. austalis and F. longicuspis var. siebolidiana.


     These preliminary results indicate:

          F. bungeana , F. chinensis, F. angustifolia var. austalis appear to be more suitable for adult EAB feeding and may not be good candidates for inclusion in ash tree breeding programs.


          F. apertisquamifera , F. insularis, F. languinos, F. oxycarpa var. tamariscifolia, F. pallisae and F. syriaca appear to be less suitable for adult EAB feeding and may show promise for inclusion in future ash breeding programs.









    Dr. Fredric Miller is professor of horticulture in the Department of Agriculture and Horticulture Sciences at Joliet Junior College, Joliet, Illinois, a Senior Research Scientist – Entomology at The Morton Arboretum, Lisle, Illinois, and Adjunct Professor in the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences (NRES) at the University of Illinois-Champaign-Urbana where he is an instructor and faculty student advisor for the off-campus Master of Science horticulture graduate degree program.   


    He received his B.S. in Forest Management from the University of Missouri-Columbia in 1977, a M.S. in Forest Entomology from the University of Arkansas-Fayetteville in 1980, and the Ph.D. in Horticultural Entomology in 1984 from Iowa State University of Science and Technology at Ames, Iowa. 


    Dr. Miller’s research efforts primarily focus on host plant resistance of Ulmus, Carpinus, Acer, and Fraxinus, Populus biotypes for major economic leaf-feeding and wood-boring insect pests.  Contributions from this research are being utilized as part of a more comprehensive tree breeding program for development of new woody landscape plants.


    Currently, he is the Illinois Forest Health Specialist with the Illinois Department Natural Resources (IDNR) and USDA-USFS. North Central Regional Office.


    From 2004-2008, he was the project manager for the northeastern Illinois emerald ash borer detection and monitoring survey in cooperation with the Illinois Department of Agriculture (IDA), U. S. Forest Service (USFS), and APHIS.


    For nearly 30 years, he has been actively involved with the Illinois chapter (IAA) of the International Society of Arboriculture (ISA) serving as the IAA president, board member, and on various committees. 


    At the national level, Dr. Miller has served on the ISA Arborist Certification Test Committee; Certification Board; chair of the educational goods and services committee;  president and board representative for the Arboriculture Research and Education Academy (AREA); and ISA Board Certified Master Arborist  (BCMA) test committee.  Dr. Miller is a Board Certified Master Arborist (BCMA).


    Dr. Miller is the author or co-author of over 30 peer-reviewed publications and over 100 popular and technical articles in regional and national publications.



    Climbers' CornerTree Academy

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