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International Society of Arboriculture
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International Society of Arboriculture
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Atlanta, GA 30303
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Order Delays Due to Physical Inventory

Due to ISA's annual physical inventory, orders placed between
2 p.m. EDT, Thursday, 20 June 2019, and 11:59 p.m. EDT, Friday 28 June 2019, will not ship until the week of 1 July 2019

Please plan your ordering accordingly.

We will resume regular turnaround times
1 July 2019.

Thank your for your patience.

Questions? Please call the customer service team at (678) 367-0981.

    Climbers' CornerTree Academy

    Arthropod Associates of the Emerald Ash Borer in Northern Illinois


    The emerald ash borer (EAB) is a phloem feeding wood boring insect that kills its host by destroying the vascular system of the tree.  As with any opportunistic organism, competition for limited resources is a major factor population dynamics.  One area of EAB biology that needs further investigation is to identify and quantify the impact of  other Arthropod species associated with EAB tree colonization and what impact, if any,  these species have on the phloem resource within a given ash tree.


    Beginning in the winter of 2007, a study was initiated to address the above questions with the following objectives:


    ·         To identify what arthropods are commonly found in healthy ash trees

    ·         To identify the arthropod complex (“EAB associates”) associated with EAB infested trees

    ·         To determine what impact, if any, competition from EAB associates might have on the available phloem resource and development of EAB life stages


    Bolts from healthy and EAB infested trees were collected from 18 central and northern Illinois counties during 2007-2011.  The bolts were placed in rearing containers and held under ambient conditions.  All Arthropods were allowed to emerge and then were placed in glass vials with 70% alcohol for future identification.  At the end of the rearing season, the bolts were peeled and the relative percentage of EAB and non-EAB galleries were visually estimated (nearest 5%) for each bolt.  Available phloem surface area was estimated by measuring the diameter of each end of the bolt and the length of the bolt.


    In 2008, the eastern ash bark beetle (EABB) consumed just over half (53%) of available phloem in non-EAB infested ash trees.  A reversal occurred for 2009 and 2010.  Ash trees suspected and/or known to be infested with EAB experienced little if any colonization by EABB with 43% of available phloem consumed by EAB larvae.  These preliminary results suggest that trees not infested with EAB are primarily colonized by the eastern ash bark beetle (EABB) (Hylesinus varius) along with a few ash clearwing borers (Podosesia sygringae) and members of the Buprestidae and Cerambycidae beetle families.  In contrast, EAB infested trees have minimal gallery formation by EABB.  Based on the results presented here, it appears that there is very little direct competition between EAB and EABB for the available phloem resource.


    The red-headed ash borer was present in all sampling years, but not in large numbers and is not considered a major phloem competitor.  It is found associated with dead wood (firewood) and does not typically infest living phloem tissue. 


    The only significant predator collected was a very small number (<1% of total insects collected) of clerid beetles (Cleridae).    This family of beetles includes common predators of bark beetles.


    Hymenopteran belonging to the Eurytomidae, Ichneumonidae, and Pteromalidae made of 28%, 29%, and 31% of all insects reared from ash tree logs, respectively.  The remaining 12% of insects collected included members of the Braconidae, Eupelmidae, and Torymidae Hymenopteran families.  All of the aforementioned Hymenopteran families are known to contain parasitoids of wood-boring insects. 


    The potential impact of EAB associates on EAB population dynamics, their conservation, and relative abundance in EAB infested trees will be discussed.




    Dr. Fredric Miller is professor of horticulture in the Department of Agriculture and Horticulture Sciences at Joliet Junior College, Joliet, Illinois, a Senior Research Scientist – Entomology at The Morton Arboretum, Lisle, Illinois, and Adjunct Professor in the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences (NRES) at the University of Illinois-Champaign-Urbana where he is an instructor and faculty student advisor for the off-campus Master of Science horticulture graduate degree program.   


    He received his B.S. in Forest Management from the University of Missouri-Columbia in 1977, a M.S. in Forest Entomology from the University of Arkansas-Fayetteville in 1980, and the Ph.D. in Horticultural Entomology in 1984 from Iowa State University of Science and Technology at Ames, Iowa. 


    Dr. Miller’s research efforts primarily focus on host plant resistance of Ulmus, Carpinus, Acer, and Fraxinus, Populus biotypes for major economic leaf-feeding and wood-boring insect pests.  Contributions from this research are being utilized as part of a more comprehensive tree breeding program for development of new woody landscape plants.


    Currently, he is the Illinois Forest Health Specialist with the Illinois Department Natural Resources (IDNR) and USDA-USFS. North Central Regional Office.


    From 2004-2008, he was the project manager for the northeastern Illinois emerald ash borer detection and monitoring survey in cooperation with the Illinois Department of Agriculture (IDA), U. S. Forest Service (USFS), and APHIS.


    For nearly 30 years, he has been actively involved with the Illinois chapter (IAA) of the International Society of Arboriculture (ISA) serving as the IAA president, board member, and on various committees. 


    At the national level, Dr. Miller has served on the ISA Arborist Certification Test Committee; Certification Board; chair of the educational goods and services committee;  president and board representative for the Arboriculture Research and Education Academy (AREA); and ISA Board Certified Master Arborist  (BCMA) test committee.  Dr. Miller is a Board Certified Master Arborist (BCMA).


    Dr. Miller is the author or co-author of over 30 peer-reviewed publications and over 100 popular and technical articles in regional and national publications.



    Climbers' CornerTree Academy

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