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Arboriculture is a global profession. It is also a profession with exposure to numerous hazards. While there are similarities in arboricultural operation hazards throughout the world, safety practices differ. There is a critical need to understand what safe work practices are required or recommended among the many countries where arboriculture is practiced as a profession. Arboriculture has international certification and climbing competitions, so standardizing safety standards is a natural outgrowth of these processes. In a world with an increasingly interconnected and mobile work force, developing uniform and effective standards can be a valuable contribution to safety. (A, U, M, T, L, Bp, Bm)


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The importance of dormant buds is likely to become more significant in many parts of the world as climate warms. They are also important elements in the arboriculture of urban trees, where they can prove to be either valuable assets or the cause of significant problems that can pose both injury and property risks. Lignotubers are modified stem structures that are reservoirs of large numbers of dormant buds and are vital to the environmental stress responses of species which possess them. (A, M, T, L, Bp, Bm)


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Sunken, loose bark, or oozing sap on trunks or limbs may indicate a canker, especially if associated with branch dieback. On trees, cankers are areas of localized necrosis of the bark and cambium, caused by a plant pathogen, typically a fungus or bacteria. Some canker-causing pathogens are a minor pest of trees, while others may cause branch failure or even tree death. Management of canker diseases focuses primarily on prevention and sanitation. (A, M, T, Bs, Bp)


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An estimated 80 percent of aboveground issues in trees are caused by issues below ground, namely problems related to roots and soil. This has led to an increased interest in the care of belowground features, particularly to overcome soil compaction and fill materials lacking organic matter. Biochar is a form of charcoal added to soil to achieve a desired improvement in soil functions. (A, U, M, T, Bs, Bm)


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There are four types of pruning cuts in arboriculture: branch removal cut, reduction cut, heading cut, and shearing cut. Although pruning live branches has a cost, it is essential to forming good structure, maintaining clearances, mitigating risk, and to meeting other objectives, so it is a necessary part of a tree care program. (A, U, M, T, Bp)


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Pruning that is well executed results in a variety of benefits, including: reduced likelihood of whole tree, branch, and stem failure; appropriate (or required) clearance for utilities, buildings, vehicles, and pedestrians; improved health and appearance; and enhanced view. When poorly performed, pruning can harm the tree’s health, stability, and appearance. (A, U, M, T, Bp)


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The cost approach produces a cost estimate for repairing, replacing, or restoring the utility of the item. The cost approach is often applied to damaged or destroyed items, tree inventories, preconstruction bonds, and insurance claims. The principle of substitution is the foundation of the cost approach and can be critical to assessing the reasonableness of the conclusions. (A, M, Bp, Bm)


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Plant appraisal focuses on trees, shrubs, and other plants as well as associated physical features and maintenance services. Potential assignments are diverse, ranging from one or more trees which may be naturally occurring or planted to project sites that may be income or non-income producing. (Article by The Council of Tree & Landscape Appraisers) (A, M, T, Bp)


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Appraisers form opinions of value that are based on data. Data are facts that provide the basis for reasoning, discussion, or calculations. The exact data needed for an appraisal will vary with the assignment, approach, method, and technique applied. (A, M, T, Bp)


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Appraisal is a systematic process that uses both quantitative analysis and qualitative judgment to develop and communicate an assignment result of either a cost or a value. (A, T, Bp, Bm)


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This article introduces common appraisal terms and core concepts such as value, cost, and the economic principles that provide the foundation for plant and landscape valuation. (A, M, Bs)


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This second article on nursery production systems discusses the potential influence of production methods on root architecture and growth, pest and disease susceptibility, establishment, drought tolerance, and tree survivability. (A, M, Bs)


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