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Arboriculture & Urban Forestry

Arboriculture & Urban Forestry quizzes are available free online to members for one year after the date of publication; a maximum of six quizzes are available at any time. Online quizzes over one-year old may be purchased by members for $10.95 and by non-members for $13.95. If you are certified and successfully pass the quiz with a score of 80% or higher, CEUs will be posted to your account within 48 hours.

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A more in-depth explanation about AUF quizzes is included in the product pages.



TitleCEUsPrice

Laurel wilt is a lethal disease of American Lauraceae caused by Harringtonia lauricola. Propiconazole is a systemic fungicide which arrests fungal growth among a variety of plant hosts. Propiconazole as a preventive treatment against laurel wilt in sassafras (Sassafras albidum) has not been evaluated. We treated sassafras trees with propiconazole using the Arborjet QUIK-jet® Micro-Injection™ and TREE I.V. Micro-Infusion™ systems (Arborjet, Inc., Woburn, MA, USA) and challenged trees by inoculating them with H. lauricola. Out of 7 trees treated using the QUIK-jet Micro-Injection system, 6 (86%) survived 52 or more weeks following inoculation with H. lauricola, while only 11% of inoculated control trees (1 of 9) survived over this period. All trees not damaged by hurricanes (n = 13) treated with propiconazole using the TREE I.V. Micro-Infusion system survived significantly longer than untreated control trees after inoculation with H. lauricola; 10 of 13 trees (77%) survived with < 50% crown loss, and 8 of 13 trees (62%) appeared entirely healthy 54 weeks post-inoculation. In the TREE I.V. Micro-Infusion system trial, 15 of 19 control trees (79%) had either died or lost ≥ 50% of living crown 54 weeks post-inoculation with H. lauricola. Results indicate sassafras trees treated with propiconazole using the Arborjet QUIK-jet Micro-Injection and TREE I.V. Micro-Infusion systems are significantly less likely to die within one year of infection with H. lauricola; however some trees may exhibit significant crown decline (≥ 50%) over this period. 1 CEU (A, U, M, Bp)


1 CEU
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Background: Arboricultural tree climbing is inherently dangerous, in part because of the possibility of failure of the tie-in point (TIP). To help climbing arborists choose TIPs wisely, we have conducted several studies to quantify the magnitude and frequency of loading associated with arboricultural tree climbing. One parameter that has not been previously studied is whether the choice of climbing line influences loads experienced by a TIP as a climbing arborist ascends. Methods: The lead author conducted trials in which he ascended to 3 TIPs (in different trees) using 2 ascent techniques and 3 different climbing lines. During each trial, we measured loads at the TIP, and from the resulting time histories analyzed the magnitude and frequency of loading. We compared the effect of ascent technique, climbing line, and their interaction on the magnitude and frequency of loading. Results: During trials, the magnitude of loading varied between 1.1 and 1.5 times the lead author’s weight and did not differ between ascent techniques, climbing lines, or their interaction. Loading frequency varied among ascent techniques, but not climbing lines. Footlocking induced loads at a wide range of frequencies, but 2 distinct frequencies were associated with ropewalking. Conclusion: Climbing arborists can use the results of this and our previous studies to help select a suitable TIP. It is important for climbing arborists to understand the magnitude of forces associated with ascending into and working in a tree. Future studies should investigate the load-bearing capacity of a TIP from the ground. 1 CEU (A, U, M, T, L, Bp)


1 CEU
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Background: Urban tree canopy (UTC) is often proposed as a mitigation strategy for simultaneously decreasing carbon emissions and urban heating in cities. Not only can trees reduce outdoor temperatures through shading and transpiration, but research also suggests that microclimate regulation by trees surrounding buildings can lead to cooler indoor temperatures and a subsequent decrease in summertime energy use. Methods: We analyzed summertime cooling electricity consumption for 21,048 single-family homes in a semi-arid city in northern Colorado, USA. Using Pearson’s correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression models, we evaluated the potential impact of UTC on cooling electricity use in 16 different zones around each house. We hypothesized that trees closer to the home, and trees located on the west and south sides of homes, would have the greatest impact on cooling electricity use. Results: UTC in all 16 zones around residential buildings was associated with negative correlation coefficients, indicating that UTC may be having an impact on energy use. Our regression results showed that UTC on the east side of single-family homes had the greatest effect. Conclusions: Although our results indicated that trees in landscapes around residential buildings can lead to some decreases in household-level energy consumption, the reductions in electricity usage were not as substantial as previous studies have predicted. Past research has shown that tree location matters, and our results indeed show that where UTC is located in reference to a building can change how much impact trees have on energy use. However, our results also show that trees on the east side of buildings have the most impact on household energy consumption in a semi-arid city in Colorado during the summer months. These results directly contradict predictions offered by popular ecosystem service models that show trees on the west and south sides of buildings as having the most impact on energy use in the Northern Hemisphere. Furthermore, many studies have suggested that the energy benefits provided by urban trees outweigh their carbon sequestration potential, and our results indicated this assumption may not hold true in all cities. 1 CEU (A, U, M, Bs, Bm)


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Utility vegetation managers need tools to predict tree-related risks and knowledge of the necessary management prescriptions to reduce the risk of windthrow damage to utilities’ electrical infrastructure. This review focuses on key studies involving the likelihood of failure of trees, beginning with a description and discussion of failure in trees, followed by an examination of methodologies that have been used to assess tree failure, before concluding with a review of factors which have been found to influence tree failure. Ultimately, a better understanding of the likelihood of failure of individual trees and the relationships governing tree failure and vegetation-related outages may allow for significant advances in the risk management of utility infrastructure. 1 CEU (A, U, M, T, L, Bm)


1 CEU
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Studies assessing the effects of biochar used as a soil amendment in agriculture and forestry have indicated variable results, from significant improvements in growth and health to no effect at all. Research into biochar use for trees within the urban landscape is extremely limited. This review is aimed at arboricultural practitioners and professionals involved in urban tree landscape management and provides a critical analysis of the use of biochar to support tree health and establishment. Biochar, specifically wood biomass-based biochar, has the potential to enhance tree establishment and survival. However, considerable variability in the physical and chemical properties of biochar currently limits universal application. Therefore, practitioners should aim to use biochar types suitable for the desired function, such as transplant establishment, remediation of declining mature trees, and pest/disease management. Biochar also represents a promising complementary amendment to more established soil management techniques such as mulching and fertilization, but further long-term studies in a range of conditions typical of urban environments are required to fully understand the effects of specific biochar types on urban trees. 1 CEU (A, U, M, T, L, Bs, Bp)


1 CEU
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Background: As human populations urbanize, urban forests in many areas are decreasing in canopy extent due to disruptions on several fronts, including novel pests and diseases, climate change, and changing land uses. Methods: A review of the remote sensing, computing, and environmental literature was performed to provide an overview of current technology capabilities and to detail an agenda for a modern approach to urban forestry challenges. How to prepare current and future professionals to collect and analyze “Big Data,” how to implement results, and what communication skills are needed in a modern world to provide resilient urban forests in the connected future were also reviewed. Results: This paper outlines an agenda for how the urban forestry professions can identify, analyze, and manage emergent disruptions to continue to provide urban forest benefits to residents in its shade. Current remote-sensing systems, the paradigm of Big Data, and collection and analysis platforms are discussed, and relevant scenarios are provided to guide insight into managing forests with a rejuvenated perspective using remote-sensing hardware and software. Conclusions: Modern cities will require modern digital urban forestry management, and current and future professionals must be able to access and utilize technology, sensors, and Big Data to effectively perform vegetation management and communication tasks. This paper details the framework for a new era of modern urban forest management in highly connected, resilient cities. 1 CEU (A, U, M, T, L, Bm)


1 CEU
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Many municipalities are working to protect and grow their urban forest, including adopting private tree regulations. Such regulations typically require property owners to apply for a permit to remove trees and, if the permit is granted, plant replacement trees. Even with such regulations, many private trees are removed each year, particularly on residential property. Property-level construction activity, including expanding building footprints, replacing an older home with a new one, and increasing hardscaping, is emerging as a key driver of residential tree loss. This study addresses whether homeowners who receive a permit to remove one or more trees comply with the requirement to plant replacement trees to better understand the effect of private tree regulation. We explore this question through a written survey of homeowners who received a tree removal permit and site visits in Toronto (Ontario, Canada). While 70% of all survey participants planted the required replacement trees 2 to 3 years after receiving the permit, only 54% of homeowners whose permit was associated with construction planted. Additionally, most replacement trees were in good health but were dominated by a few genera. We also found significant differences in replacement planting and tree survival across the city’s 4 management districts. This study highlights that if resources supporting private tree regulations are limited, tree permits associated with construction should be prioritized for follow-up. Additionally, guidance about diverse species to plant should be communicated to ensure that private tree regulations are supporting the long-term protection of the urban forest. 0.5 CEU (A, U, M, Bm, Bp)


0.5 CEU
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Urban forests create indispensable habitat for declining wildlife populations. The tree care industry is essential to the viability of urban forests and thus the survival of urban wildlife. At the same time, tree care operations such as tree removal and branch pruning present clear threats to urban wildlife and their habitats. Here we describe the development of a grassroots coalition of arborists and wildlife advocates in the Western United States and the process of charting a path to best management practices and professional training to mitigate the impacts of tree care practices to wildlife. In particular, we describe the unique challenges and opportunities that arose through this multidisciplinary process and build a case for the benefits of uniting diverse communities of practice around complex urban ecological problems. We finish by laying out recommendations to the international arboriculture and urban forestry practitioner and research communities. 0.5 CEU (A, U, M, Bm, Bp)


0.5 CEU
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Background: We present the plant area index (PAI) measurements taken for 63 deciduous broadleaved tree species and 1 deciduous conifer tree species suitable for urban areas in Nordic cities. The aim was to evaluate PAI and wood area index (WAI) of solitary-grown broadleaved tree species and cultivars of the same age in order to present a data resource of individual tree characteristics viewed in summer (PAI) and in winter (WAI). Methods: All trees were planted as individuals in 2001 at the Hørsholm Arboretum in Denmark. The field method included a Digital Plant Canopy Imager where each scan and contrast values were set to consistent values. Results: The results illustrate that solitary trees differ widely in their WAI and PAI and reflect the integrated effects of leaf material and the woody component of tree crowns. The indications also show highly significant (P < 0.001) differences between species and genotypes. The WAI had an overall mean of 0.91 (± 0.03), ranging from Tilia platyphyllos ‘Orebro’ with a WAI of 0.32 (± 0.04) to Carpinus betulus ‘Fastigiata’ with a WAI of 1.94 (± 0.09). The lowest mean PAI in the data set was Fraxinus angustifolia ‘Raywood’ with a PAI of 1.93 (± 0.05), whereas Acer campestre ‘Kuglennar’ represents the cultivar with the largest PAI of 8.15 (± 0.14). Conclusions: Understanding how this variation in crown architectural structure changes over the year can be applied to climate responsive design and microclimate modeling where plant and wood area index of solitary-grown trees in urban contexts are of interest. 1 CEU (A, U, M, Bs)


1 CEU
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Real-time monitoring of tree growth can provide novel information about trees in urban/suburban areas and the myriad ecosystem services they provide. By monitoring irrigated specimen trees, we tested the hypothesis that in trees with sufficient water, growth is governed by environmental factors regulating energy gain rather than by factors related to water use. Internet-enabled, high-resolution dendrometers were installed on 3 trees in Southampton, NY, USA. The instruments, along with a weather station, streamed data to a project web page that was updated once an hour. Growing periods were determined using a Hidden Markov Model based on a zero-growth model. Linear models and conditional inference trees correlated environmental variables to growth magnitude and rate of growth. Growth was governed by the interacting environmental variables of air temperature, soil moisture, and vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and took place primarily at night. Radial growth of spruce began April 14 after the accumulation of 69.7 °C growing degree days and ended September 7. Cedar growth began later (April 26) after the accumulation of 160.6 °C and ended later (November 3). During the observation period, these 3 modest suburban trees sequestered 115.1 kg of CO2. Though irrigated, residential tree growth in our experiment was affected by environmental factors relating to both water use and energy gain through photosynthesis. Linking tree growth to fluctuations in environmental conditions facilitates the development of a predictive understanding useful for ecosystem management and growth forecasting across future altering climates. 1 CEU (A, U, M, Bs, Bp)


1 CEU
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The shoots produced from axillary, epicormic, and lignotuberous buds are significant parts of stress recovery responses in many tree species. The production of either epicormic or lignotuberous shoots does not guarantee survival of a tree, as the mortality of shoots is high. This research investigated the relationship between root tip growth and shoot production and survival after stress and its implications for urban tree managers. Seedlings of Eucalyptus obliqua L’Herit. were stressed by decapitation or different levels of heat stress at temperatures ranging from 40 °C to 100 °C for 2 to 128 minutes, as well as combinations of the two stresses. While the temperatures are not as high as those experienced in a forest fire, the stresses imposed can inform plant responses to stress such as fire. Lower temperatures and shorter durations were often sublethal, and decapitation, to the same extent as heat killing of plant tissues, elicited similar levels of epicormic and lignotuberous shoot growth. The root systems of the seedlings were inspected to determine whether the root tips were healthy, and selected root tips were monitored to determine if and when they had resumed growth. Survival rates of epicormic and lignotuberous shoots were enhanced by the presence of healthy leaves. The recommencement of growth after stress by the development of epicormic or lignotuberous shoots was preceded by root tip growth, which emphasises the importance of a healthy root system. Managing for the best soil conditions possible during and immediately after stress may be a key to successful shoot production and tree recovery. 1 CEU (A, U, M, T, Bs, Bm)


1 CEU
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Callery pear (Pyrus calleryana) is a tree notorious for poor branch union and breakage during storms. Structural pruning is a pruning technique that can be practiced on young trees to strengthen tree branch attachment. Callery pear (Pyrus calleryana ‘Redspire’) was structurally pruned and allowed to grow for 7 years and compared to an unpruned control. A breaking device was used to determine branch strength by providing a static load to simulate a snow or ice load. Branches from pruned and unpruned trees were pulled to failure to observe any difference from pruning. Regardless of the structural pruning treatment, trees that were unpruned were larger in diameter at breast height (DBH) and width at the end of the test. No differences were found in testing branch union strength for either pruned or unpruned trees, suggesting that more time is needed to determine the long-term benefits of structural pruning. Branch tissue moisture content was greater than trunk tissue both in immediate post-harvest testing and in samples over time. Also, branch moisture content observations suggested the time available for field testing branch union strength could be as much as 5 to 9 days after harvest. 0.5 CEU (A, U, M, T, L, Bp)


0.5 CEU
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