Arborist News quizzes are available free online to members for one year after the date of publication; a maximum of six quizzes are available at any time. CEU quizzes for older articles may be purchased by both members and non-members.
Bacteria, nematodes, viruses, and phytoplasmas can be spread from plant to plant by a variety of methods, including root grafts, wind, raindrop splash, animals, and humans, with insects being one of the more common and efficient methods of disease transmission. Unlike fungi, these pathogens are not capable of directly penetrating plant surfaces, but have to enter through natural plant openings, insect feeding wounds, mechanical damage, storm and flood damage, pruning wounds, or physical damage. Part two of this article series focuses on the role insect vectors play in spreading diseases caused by bacteria, nematodes, viruses, and phytoplasmas, including very brief summaries of disease life cycles and associated symptoms and signs. (A, U, M, Bp, Bs)
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